Saying and shaking ˋNo'
In many instances, the head shake can be used instead of or in addition to verbal ˋNo'. Based on previous work on negation in dialogue, we observe head shaking as answer particles and as responding to an implicit or an exophoric (i.e., real world situation) antecedent. Exophoric head shake, however, seems to come in two flavours: with positive and with negative emotional valuation of the antecedent situation. We provide semantic analyses for all three uses (and a head nod) within an HPSG version which is implemented in Type Theory with Records and the dialogue framewok KoS. In particular, we extend on previous work by grounding ˋˋexophoric negation'' in positive or negative appraisal. Finally, we briefly speculate about differences between verbal ˋNo' and head shaking due to (the lack of) simultaneity.